Soul of a tiny new machine. More thorough tests → More comprehensible and rewrite-friendly software → More resilient society.
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# Helper to print an int32 in decimal.
== code
# instruction effective address register displacement immediate
# . op subop mod rm32 base index scale r32
# . 1-3 bytes 3 bits 2 bits 3 bits 3 bits 3 bits 2 bits 2 bits 0/1/2/4 bytes 0/1/2/4 bytes
write-int32-decimal: # out: (addr stream byte), n: int
# works by generating characters from lowest to highest and pushing them
# to the stack, before popping them one by one into the stream
#
# pseudocode:
# push sentinel
# eax = abs(n)
# while true
# sign-extend eax into edx
# eax, edx = eax/10, eax%10
# edx += '0'
# push edx
# if (eax == 0) break
# if n < 0
# push '-'
# w = out->write
# curr = &out->data[out->write]
# max = &out->data[out->size]
# while true
# pop into eax
# if (eax == sentinel) break
# if (curr >= max) abort
# *curr = AL
# ++curr
# ++w
# out->write = w
# (based on K&R itoa: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/C_Programming/stdlib.h/itoa)
# (this pseudocode contains registers because operations like division
# require specific registers in x86)
#
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/copy 3/mod/direct 5/rm32/ebp . . . 4/r32/esp . . # copy esp to ebp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
51/push-ecx
52/push-edx
53/push-ebx
57/push-edi
# const ten/ecx = 10
b9/copy-to-ecx 0xa/imm32
# push sentinel
68/push 0/imm32/sentinel
# var eax: int = abs(n)
8b/copy 1/mod/*+disp8 5/rm32/ebp . . . 0/r32/eax 0xc/disp8 . # copy *(ebp+12) to eax
3d/compare-eax-with 0/imm32
7d/jump-if->= $write-int32-decimal:read-loop/disp8
$write-int32-decimal:negative:
f7 3/subop/negate 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax . . . . . . # negate eax
$write-int32-decimal:read-loop:
# eax, edx = eax / 10, eax % 10
99/sign-extend-eax-into-edx
f7 7/subop/idiv 3/mod/direct 1/rm32/ecx . . . . . . # divide edx:eax by ecx, storing quotient in eax and remainder in edx
# edx += '0'
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 2/rm32/edx . . . . . 0x30/imm32 # add to edx
# push edx
52/push-edx
# if (eax == 0) break
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32
7f/jump-if-> $write-int32-decimal:read-loop/disp8
$write-int32-decimal:read-break:
# if (n < 0) push('-')
81 7/subop/compare 1/mod/*+disp8 5/rm32/ebp . . . . 0xc/disp8 0/imm32 # compare *(ebp+12)
7d/jump-if->= $write-int32-decimal:write/disp8
$write-int32-decimal:push-negative:
68/push 0x2d/imm32/-
$write-int32-decimal:write:
# edi = out
8b/copy 1/mod/*+disp8 5/rm32/ebp . . . 7/r32/edi 8/disp8 . # copy *(ebp+8) to edi
# var w/edx: int = out->write
8b/copy 0/mod/indirect 7/rm32/edi . . . 2/r32/edx . . # copy *edi to edx
# var curr/ecx: (addr byte) = &out->data[out->write]
8d/copy-address 1/mod/*+disp8 4/rm32/sib 7/base/edi 2/index/edx . 1/r32/ecx 0xc/disp8 . # copy ebx+edx+12 to ecx
# var max/ebx: (addr byte) = &out->data[out->size]
8b/copy 1/mod/*+disp8 7/rm32/edi . . . 3/r32/ebx 8/disp8 . # copy *(edi+8) to ebx
8d/copy-address 1/mod/*+disp8 4/rm32/sib 7/base/edi 3/index/ebx . 3/r32/ebx 0xc/disp8 . # copy edi+ebx+12 to ebx
$write-int32-decimal:write-loop:
# pop into eax
58/pop-to-eax
# if (eax == sentinel) break
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/sentinel
74/jump-if-= $write-int32-decimal:write-break/disp8
# if (curr >= max) abort
39/compare 3/mod/direct 1/rm32/ecx . . . 3/r32/ebx . . # compare ecx with ebx
73/jump-if-addr>= $write-int32-decimal:abort/disp8
$write-int32-decimal:write-char:
# *curr = AL
88/copy-byte 0/mod/indirect 1/rm32/ecx . . . 0/r32/AL . . # copy AL to byte at *ecx
# ++curr
41/increment-ecx
# ++w
42/increment-edx
eb/jump $write-int32-decimal:write-loop/disp8
$write-int32-decimal:write-break:
# out->write = w
89/copy 0/mod/indirect 7/rm32/edi . . . 2/r32/edx . . # copy edx to *edi
$write-int32-decimal:end:
# . restore registers
5f/pop-to-edi
5b/pop-to-ebx
5a/pop-to-edx
59/pop-to-ecx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/copy 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . 5/r32/ebp . . # copy ebp to esp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
$write-int32-decimal:abort:
(abort "write-int32-decimal: stream out of space")
# never gets here
test-write-int32-decimal:
# - check that a single-digit number converts correctly
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, 9)
# . . push args
68/push 9/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "9", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal"/imm32
68/push "9"/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
test-write-int32-decimal-zero:
# - check that 0 converts correctly
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, 0)
# . . push args
68/push 0/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "0", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal-zero"/imm32
68/push "0"/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
test-write-int32-decimal-multiple-digits:
# - check that a multi-digit number converts correctly
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, 10)
# . . push args
68/push 0xa/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "10", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal-multiple-digits"/imm32
68/push "10"/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
test-write-int32-decimal-negative:
# - check that a negative single-digit number converts correctly
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, -9)
# . . push args
68/push -9/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
#? # dump _test-stream {{{
#? # . write(2/stderr, "^")
#? # . . push args
#? 68/push "^"/imm32
#? 68/push 2/imm32/stderr
#? # . . call
#? e8/call write/disp32
#? # . . discard args
#? 81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
#? # . write-stream(2/stderr, _test-stream)
#? # . . push args
#? 68/push _test-stream/imm32
#? 68/push 2/imm32/stderr
#? # . . call
#? e8/call write-stream/disp32
#? # . . discard args
#? 81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
#? # . write(2/stderr, "$\n")
#? # . . push args
#? 68/push "$\n"/imm32
#? 68/push 2/imm32/stderr
#? # . . call
#? e8/call write/disp32
#? # . . discard args
#? 81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
#? # }}}
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "-9", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal-negative"/imm32
68/push "-9"/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
# There's a special bit pattern that corresponds to no 2's complement integer.
# There doesn't seem to be a widespread convention for representing it.
test-write-int32-decimal-indefinite-integer:
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, 0x80000000)
# . . push args
68/push 0x80000000/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "-(", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal-indefinite-integer"/imm32
68/push "-("/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
test-write-int32-decimal-negative-multiple-digits:
# - check that a multi-digit number converts correctly
# setup
# . clear-stream(_test-stream)
# . . push args
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call clear-stream/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# write-int32-decimal(_test-stream, -10)
# . . push args
68/push -0xa/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call write-int32-decimal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 8/imm32 # add to esp
# check-stream-equal(_test-stream, "-10", msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-write-int32-decimal-negative-multiple-digits"/imm32
68/push "-10"/imm32
68/push _test-stream/imm32
# . . call
e8/call check-stream-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# . end
c3/return
decimal-digit?: # c: code-point-utf8 -> result/eax: boolean
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/copy 3/mod/direct 5/rm32/ebp . . . 4/r32/esp . . # copy esp to ebp
# . save registers
51/push-ecx
# ecx = c
8b/copy 1/mod/*+disp8 5/rm32/ebp . . . 1/r32/ecx 8/disp8 . # copy *(ebp+8) to ecx
# result = false
b8/copy-to-eax 0/imm32/false
# return false if c < '0'
81 7/subop/compare 3/mod/direct 1/rm32/ecx . . . . . 0x30/imm32 # compare ecx
7c/jump-if-< $decimal-digit?:end/disp8
# return (c <= '9')
81 7/subop/compare 3/mod/direct 1/rm32/ecx . . . . . 0x39/imm32 # compare ecx
7f/jump-if-> $decimal-digit?:end/disp8
$decimal-digit?:true:
b8/copy-to-eax 1/imm32/true
$decimal-digit?:end:
# . restore registers
59/pop-to-ecx
# . epilogue
89/copy 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . 5/r32/ebp . . # copy ebp to esp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
test-decimal-digit-below-0:
# eax = decimal-digit?(0x2f)
# . . push args
68/push 0x2f/imm32
# . . call
e8/call decimal-digit?/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# check-ints-equal(eax, 0, msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-decimal-digit-below-0"/imm32
68/push 0/imm32/false
50/push-eax
# . . call
e8/call check-ints-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
c3/return
test-decimal-digit-0-to-9:
# eax = decimal-digit?(0x30)
# . . push args
68/push 0x30/imm32
# . . call
e8/call decimal-digit?/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# check-ints-equal(eax, 1, msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-decimal-digit-at-0"/imm32
68/push 1/imm32/true
50/push-eax
# . . call
e8/call check-ints-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
# eax = decimal-digit?(0x39)
# . . push args
68/push 0x39/imm32
# . . call
e8/call decimal-digit?/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# check-ints-equal(eax, 1, msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-decimal-digit-at-9"/imm32
68/push 1/imm32/true
50/push-eax
# . . call
e8/call check-ints-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
c3/return
test-decimal-digit-above-9:
# eax = decimal-digit?(0x3a)
# . . push args
68/push 0x3a/imm32
# . . call
e8/call decimal-digit?/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 4/imm32 # add to esp
# check-ints-equal(eax, 0, msg)
# . . push args
68/push "F - test-decimal-digit-above-9"/imm32
68/push 0/imm32/false
50/push-eax
# . . call
e8/call check-ints-equal/disp32
# . . discard args
81 0/subop/add 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . . . 0xc/imm32 # add to esp
c3/return
to-decimal-digit: # in: code-point-utf8 -> out/eax: int
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/copy 3/mod/direct 5/rm32/ebp . . . 4/r32/esp . . # copy esp to ebp
# eax = in
8b/copy 1/mod/*+disp8 5/rm32/ebp . . . 0/r32/eax 8/disp8 . # copy *(ebp+8) to eax
$to-decimal-digit:check0:
# if (eax < '0') goto abort
3d/compare-eax-with 0x30/imm32/0
7c/jump-if-< $to-decimal-digit:abort/disp8
$to-decimal-digit:check1:
# if (eax > '9') goto abort
3d/compare-eax-with 0x39/imm32/f
7f/jump-if-> $to-decimal-digit:abort/disp8
$to-decimal-digit:digit:
# return eax - '0'
2d/subtract-from-eax 0x30/imm32/0
$to-decimal-digit:end:
# . epilogue
89/copy 3/mod/direct 4/rm32/esp . . . 5/r32/ebp . . # copy ebp to esp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
$to-decimal-digit:abort:
(abort "to-decimal-digit: not a digit character")
# never gets here
# . . vim:nowrap:textwidth=0