Soul of a tiny new machine. More thorough tests → More comprehensible and rewrite-friendly software → More resilient society.
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
 
 
 
 
 
 

1628 lines
48 KiB

# Code for the first few disk sectors that all programs in this directory need:
# - load sectors past the first (using BIOS primitives) since only the first is available by default
# - if this fails, print 'D' at top-left of screen and halt
# - initialize a minimal graphics mode
# - switch to 32-bit mode (giving up access to BIOS primitives)
# - set up a handler for keyboard events
# - jump to start of program
# Code in this file needs to be more deliberate about the SubX facilities it
# uses:
# - sigils only support 32-bit general-purpose registers, so don't work with segment registers or 16-bit or 8-bit registers
# - metadata like rm32 and r32 can sometimes misleadingly refer to only the bottom 16 bits of the register; pay attention to the register name
#
# While most of Mu is thoroughly tested, this file is not. I don't yet
# understand hardware interfaces well enough to explain to others.
# Memory map of a Mu computer:
# code: currently 4 tracks loaded from the primary disk to [0x00007c00, 0x00048600)
# stack: grows down from 0x02000000 to 0x01000000
# heap: [0x02000000, 0x08000000)
# see 120allocate.subx; Qemu initializes with 128MB RAM by default
# Consult https://wiki.osdev.org/Memory_Map_(x86) before modifying any of
# this. And don't forget to keep *stack-debug.subx in sync.
== code
## 16-bit entry point: 0x7c00
# Upon reset, the IBM PC:
# - loads the first sector (512 bytes)
# from some bootable image (look for the boot-sector-marker further down this file)
# to the address range [0x7c00, 0x7e00)
# - starts executing code at address 0x7c00
fa/disable-interrupts
# initialize segment registers
b8/copy-to-ax 0/imm16
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 3/r32/ds
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 0/r32/es
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 4/r32/fs
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 5/r32/gs
# Temporarily initialize stack to 0x00070000 in real mode.
# We don't read or write the stack before we get to 32-bit mode, but BIOS
# calls do. We need to move the stack in case BIOS initializes it to some
# low address that we want to write code into.
b8/copy-to-ax 0x7000/imm16
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 2/r32/ss
bc/copy-to-esp 0/imm16
# undo the A20 hack: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A20_line
# this is from https://github.com/mit-pdos/xv6-public/blob/master/bootasm.S
{
e4/read-port-into-al 0x64/imm8
a8/test-bits-in-al 0x02/imm8 # set zf if bit 1 (second-least significant) is not set
75/jump-if-!zero loop/disp8
b0/copy-to-al 0xd1/imm8
e6/write-al-into-port 0x64/imm8
}
{
e4/read-port-into-al 0x64/imm8
a8/test-bits-in-al 0x02/imm8 # set zf if bit 1 (second-least significant) is not set
75/jump-if-!zero loop/disp8
b0/copy-to-al 0xdf/imm8
e6/write-al-into-port 0x64/imm8
}
# load remaining sectors from first two tracks of disk into addresses [0x7e00, 0x17800)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 0/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 2/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7d/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 - 1 = 125
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x7e00, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0x7e00/imm16 # <====
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# load two more tracks of disk into addresses [0x17800, 0x27400)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 2/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 1/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7e/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 = 126
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x17800, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0x1780/imm16 # <====
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# load two more tracks of disk into addresses [0x27400, 0x37000)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 4/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 1/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7e/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 = 126
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x27400, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0x2740/imm16 # <====
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# load two more tracks of disk into addresses [0x37000, 0x46c00)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 6/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 1/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7e/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 = 126
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x37000, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0x3700/imm16 # <====
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# load two more tracks of disk into addresses [0x46c00, 0x56800)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 8/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 1/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7e/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 = 126
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x46c00, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0x46c0/imm16 # <====
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# load two more tracks of disk into addresses [0x56800, 0x66400)
b4/copy-to-ah 2/imm8/read-drive
# dl comes conveniently initialized at boot time with the index of the device being booted
b5/copy-to-ch 0/imm8/cylinder
b6/copy-to-dh 0xa/imm8/head # <====
b1/copy-to-cl 1/imm8/sector # 1-based
b0/copy-to-al 0x7e/imm8/num-sectors # 2*63 = 126
# address to write sectors to = es:bx = 0x56800, contiguous with boot segment
bb/copy-to-bx 0x5680/imm16 # <====
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
cd/syscall 0x13/imm8/bios-disk-services
0f 82/jump-if-carry disk_error/disp16
# reset es
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 0/r32/es
# adjust video mode
b4/copy-to-ah 0x4f/imm8 # VBE commands
b0/copy-to-al 2/imm8 # set video mode
bb/copy-to-bx 0x4105/imm16 # 0x0105 | 0x4000
# 0x0105 = graphics mode 1024x768x256
# (alternative candidate: 0x0101 for 640x480x256)
# 0x4000 bit = configure linear frame buffer in Bochs emulator; hopefully this doesn't hurt anything when running natively
cd/syscall 0x10/imm8/bios-video-services
# load information for the (hopefully) current video mode
# mostly just for the address to the linear frame buffer
b4/copy-to-ah 0x4f/imm8 # VBE commands
b0/copy-to-al 1/imm8 # get video mode info
b9/copy-to-cx 0x0105/imm16 # mode we requested
bf/copy-to-di Video-mode-info/imm16
cd/syscall 0x10/imm8/bios-video-services
## switch to 32-bit mode
# load global descriptor table
# We can't refer to the label directly because SubX doesn't do the right
# thing for lgdt, so rather than make errors worse in most places we instead
# pin gdt_descriptor below.
0f 01 2/subop/lgdt 0/mod/indirect 6/rm32/use-disp16 0x7de0/disp16/gdt_descriptor
# enable paging
0f 20/<-cr 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 0/r32/cr0
66 83 1/subop/or 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 1/imm8 # eax <- or 0x1
0f 22/->cr 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 0/r32/cr0
# far jump to initialize_32bit_mode that sets cs to offset 8 in the gdt in the process
# We can't refer to the label directly because SubX doesn't have syntax for
# segment selectors. So we instead pin initialize_32bit_mode below.
ea/jump-far-absolute 0x00087e00/disp32 # address 0x7e00 in offset 8 of the gdt
disk_error:
# print 'D' to top-left of screen to indicate disk error
# *0xb8000 <- 0x0f44
bb/copy-to-bx 0xb800/imm16
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 3/rm32/bx 3/r32/ds
b0/copy-to-al 0x44/imm8/D
b4/copy-to-ah 0x0f/imm8/white-on-black
bb/copy-to-bx 0/imm16
89/<- 0/mod/indirect 7/rm32/bx 0/r32/ax # *ds:bx <- ax
# loop forever
{
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
## GDT: 3 records of 8 bytes each
== data 0x7de0
gdt_descriptor:
0x17/imm16 # final index of gdt = size of gdt - 1
gdt_start/imm32/start
gdt_start:
# offset 0: gdt_null: mandatory null descriptor
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# offset 8: gdt_code
ff ff # limit[0:16]
00 00 00 # base[0:24]
9a # 1/present 00/privilege 1/descriptor type = 1001b
# 1/code 0/conforming 1/readable 0/accessed = 1010b
cf # 1/granularity 1/32-bit 0/64-bit-segment 0/AVL = 1100b
# limit[16:20] = 1111b
00 # base[24:32]
# offset 16: gdt_data
ff ff # limit[0:16]
00 00 00 # base[0:24]
92 # 1/present 00/privilege 1/descriptor type = 1001b
# 0/data 0/conforming 1/readable 0/accessed = 0010b
cf # same as gdt_code
00 # base[24:32]
# gdt_end:
== boot-sector-marker 0x7dfe
# final 2 bytes of boot sector
55 aa
## sector 2 onwards loaded by load_disk, not automatically on boot
## 32-bit code from this point
== code 0x7e00
initialize_32bit_mode:
66 b8/copy-to-ax 0x10/imm16 # offset 16 from gdt_start
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 3/r32/ds
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 2/r32/ss
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 0/r32/es
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 4/r32/fs
8e/->seg 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/ax 5/r32/gs
bc/copy-to-esp 0x02000000/imm32
## load interrupt handlers
# We can't refer to the label directly because SubX doesn't do the right
# thing for lidt, so rather than make errors worse in most places we instead
# pin idt_descriptor below.
0f 01 3/subop/lidt 0/mod/indirect 5/rm32/use-disp32 0x7f00/disp32/idt_descriptor
# For now, not bothering reprogramming the IRQ to not conflict with software
# exceptions.
# https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=8259_PIC&oldid=24650#Protected_Mode
#
# Interrupt 1 (keyboard) conflicts with debugger faults. We don't use a
# debugger.
# Reference:
# https://wiki.osdev.org/Exceptions
# enable timer IRQ0 and keyboard IRQ1
b0/copy-to-al 0xfc/imm8 # disable mask for IRQ0 and IRQ1
e6/write-al-into-port 0x21/imm8
fb/enable-interrupts
(initialize-mouse)
## enable floating point
db/floating-point-coprocessor e3/initialize
# eax <- cr4
0f 20/<-cr 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 4/r32/cr4
# eax <- or bit 9
0f ba/bit-test 5/subop/bit-test-and-set 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 9/imm8
# cr4 <- eax
0f 22/->cr 3/mod/direct 0/rm32/eax 4/r32/cr4
e9/jump Entry/disp32
== data 0x7f00
idt_descriptor:
ff 03 # final index of idt = size of idt - 1
idt_start/imm32/start
# interrupt descriptor table {{{
# 32 entries of 8 bytes each
idt_start:
# entry 0
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# By default, BIOS maps IRQ0-7 to interrupt vectors 8-15.
# https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=Interrupts&oldid=25102#Default_PC_Interrupt_Vector_Assignment
# entry 8: https://wiki.osdev.org/Programmable_Interval_Timer
timer-interrupt-handler/imm16 # target[0:16]
8/imm16 # segment selector (gdt_code)
00 # unused
8e # 1/p 00/dpl 0 1110/type/32-bit-interrupt-gate
0/imm16 # target[16:32] -- timer-interrupt-handler must be within address 0x10000
# entry 9: keyboard
keyboard-interrupt-handler/imm16 # target[0:16]
8/imm16 # segment selector (gdt_code)
00 # unused
8e # 1/p 00/dpl 0 1110/type/32-bit-interrupt-gate
0/imm16 # target[16:32] -- keyboard-interrupt-handler must be within address 0x10000
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# idt_end:
# }}}
== code
timer-interrupt-handler:
# prologue
fa/disable-interrupts
60/push-all-registers
9c/push-flags
# acknowledge interrupt
b0/copy-to-al 0x20/imm8
e6/write-al-into-port 0x20/imm8
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
# update *Timer-current-color
ff 0/subop/increment *Timer-counter
$timer-interrupt-handler:epilogue:
# epilogue
9d/pop-flags
61/pop-all-registers
fb/enable-interrupts
cf/return-from-interrupt
== data
Timer-counter:
0/imm32
== code
keyboard-interrupt-handler:
# prologue
fa/disable-interrupts
60/push-all-registers
9c/push-flags
# acknowledge interrupt
b0/copy-to-al 0x20/imm8
e6/write-al-into-port 0x20/imm8
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
# check output buffer of 8042 keyboard controller (https://web.archive.org/web/20040604041507/http://panda.cs.ndsu.nodak.edu/~achapwes/PICmicro/keyboard/atkeyboard.html)
e4/read-port-into-al 0x64/imm8
a8/test-bits-in-al 0x01/imm8 # set zf if bit 0 (least significant) is not set
0f 84/jump-if-not-set $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp32
# - if keyboard buffer is full, return
# var dest-addr/ecx: (addr byte) = (keyboard-buffer + *keyboard-buffer:write)
31/xor %ecx 1/r32/ecx
8a/byte-> *Keyboard-buffer:write 1/r32/cl
81 0/subop/add %ecx Keyboard-buffer:data/imm32
# al = *dest-addr
8a/byte-> *ecx 0/r32/al
# if (al != 0) return
3c/compare-al-and 0/imm8
0f 85/jump-if-!= $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp32
# - read keycode
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
# - key released
# if (al == 0xaa) shift = false # left shift is being lifted
{
3c/compare-al-and 0xaa/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *shift = 0
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-shift-pressed? 0/imm32
}
# if (al == 0xb6) shift = false # right shift is being lifted
{
3c/compare-al-and 0xb6/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *shift = 0
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-shift-pressed? 0/imm32
}
# if (al == 0x9d) ctrl = false # ctrl is being lifted
{
3c/compare-al-and 0x9d/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *ctrl = 0
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-ctrl-pressed? 0/imm32
}
# if (al & 0x80) a key is being lifted; return
50/push-eax
24/and-al-with 0x80/imm8
3c/compare-al-and 0/imm8
58/pop-to-eax
75/jump-if-!= $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp8
# - key pressed
# if (al == 0x2a) shift = true, return # left shift pressed
{
3c/compare-al-and 0x2a/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *shift = 1
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-shift-pressed? 1/imm32
# return
eb/jump $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp8
}
# if (al == 0x36) shift = true, return # right shift pressed
{
3c/compare-al-and 0x36/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *shift = 1
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-shift-pressed? 1/imm32
# return
eb/jump $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp8
}
# if (al == 0x1d) ctrl = true, return
{
3c/compare-al-and 0x1d/imm8
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# *ctrl = 1
c7 0/subop/copy *Keyboard-ctrl-pressed? 1/imm32
# return
eb/jump $keyboard-interrupt-handler:end/disp8
}
# - convert key to character
# if (shift) use keyboard shift map
{
81 7/subop/compare *Keyboard-shift-pressed? 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
# sigils don't currently support labels inside *(eax+label)
05/add-to-eax Keyboard-shift-map/imm32
8a/byte-> *eax 0/r32/al
eb/jump $keyboard-interrupt-handler:select-map-done/disp8
}
# if (ctrl) al = *(ctrl map + al)
{
81 7/subop/compare *Keyboard-ctrl-pressed? 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
05/add-to-eax Keyboard-ctrl-map/imm32
8a/byte-> *eax 0/r32/al
eb/jump $keyboard-interrupt-handler:select-map-done/disp8
}
# otherwise al = *(normal map + al)
05/add-to-eax Keyboard-normal-map/imm32
8a/byte-> *eax 0/r32/al
$keyboard-interrupt-handler:select-map-done:
# - if there's no character mapping, return
{
3c/compare-al-and 0/imm8
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
# - store al in keyboard buffer
88/<- *ecx 0/r32/al
# increment index
fe/increment-byte *Keyboard-buffer:write
# clear top nibble of index (keyboard buffer is circular)
80 4/subop/and-byte *Keyboard-buffer:write 0x0f/imm8
}
$keyboard-interrupt-handler:end:
# epilogue
9d/pop-flags
61/pop-all-registers
fb/enable-interrupts
cf/return-from-interrupt
== data
Keyboard-shift-pressed?: # boolean
0/imm32
Keyboard-ctrl-pressed?: # boolean
0/imm32
# var keyboard circular buffer
Keyboard-buffer:write: # nibble
0/imm32
Keyboard-buffer:read: # nibble
0/imm32
Keyboard-buffer:data: # byte[16]
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
# Keyboard maps for translating keys to ASCII {{{
Keyboard-normal-map:
00
# es
1b
# |<--- digits -------------->| - = backspace
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 30 2d 3d 08
# 0f
# tab q w e r t y u i o p [ ]
09 71 77 65 72 74 79 75 69 6f 70 5b 5d
# 1c
# enter (newline)
0a 00
# 1e
# a s d f g h j k l ; ' ` \
61 73 64 66 67 68 6a 6b 6c 3b 27 60 00 5c
# ^ left shift
# 2c
# z x c v b n m , . / *
7a 78 63 76 62 6e 6d 2c 2e 2f 00 2a
# ^ right shift
# 38
# space
00 20
# 3a
00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 48
# ↑* ←* →* ↓*
82 00 00 80 00 83 00 00 81
# 51
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# * - Not a valid ASCII/Unicode value.
Keyboard-shift-map:
00
# es
1b
# ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + backspace
21 40 23 24 25 53 26 2a 28 29 5f 2b 08
# 0f
# tab Q W E R T Y U I O P { }
09 51 57 45 52 54 59 55 49 5f 50 7b 7d
# 1c
# enter (newline)
0a 00
# 1e
# A S D F G H J K L : " ~ |
41 53 44 46 47 48 4a 4b 4c 3a 22 7e 00 7c
# 2c
# Z X C V B N M < > ? *
5a 58 43 56 42 4e 4d 3c 3e 3f 00 2a
# 38
# space
00 20
# 3a
00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 48
# ↑* ←* →* ↓*
82 00 00 80 00 83 00 00 81
# 51
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# * - Not a valid ASCII/Unicode value.
Keyboard-ctrl-map:
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 10
# ^q ^w ^e ^r ^t ^y ^u tb ^o ^p
11 17 05 12 14 19 15 09 1f 10 00 00
# 1c
# carriage-return
0d 00
# 1e
# ^a ^s ^d ^f ^g ^h ^j ^k ^l ^\
01 13 04 06 07 08 0a 0b 0c 00 00 00 00 1c
# 2c
# ^z ^x ^c ^v ^b ^n ^m ^/
1a 18 03 16 02 0e 0d 00 00 1f 00 00
# 38
# space
00 20
# 3a
00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 48
# ↑* ←* →* ↓*
82 00 00 80 00 83 00 00 81
# 51
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# * - Not a valid ASCII/Unicode value.
# }}}
Video-mode-info:
# video mode info {{{
0/imm16 # attributes
00 # winA
00 # winB
# 04
0/imm16 # granularity
0/imm16 # winsize
# 08
0/imm16 # segmentA
0/imm16 # segmentB
# 0c
0/imm32 # realFctPtr (who knows)
# 10
0/imm16 # pitch
0/imm16 # Xres
0/imm16 # Yres
0/imm16 # Wchar Ychar
# 18
00 # planes
00 # bpp
00 # banks
00 # memory_model
# 1c
00 # bank_size
00 # image_pages
00 # reserved
# 1f
0/imm16 # red_mask red_position
0/imm16 # green_mask green_position
0/imm16 # blue_mask blue_position
0/imm16 # rsv_mask rsv_position
00 # directcolor_attributes
# 28
Video-memory-addr:
0/imm32 # physbase
# 2c
# reserved for video mode info
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# }}}
Font:
# Bitmaps for some ASCII characters (soon Unicode) {{{
# Part of GNU Unifont
# 8px wide, 16px tall
# Based on http://unifoundry.com/pub/unifont/unifont-13.0.05/font-builds/unifont-13.0.05.hex.gz
# See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Unifont#The_.hex_font_format
# Website: http://unifoundry.com/unifont/index.html
# License: http://unifoundry.com/LICENSE.txt (GPL v2)
# Each line below is a bitmap for a single character.
# Each byte is a bitmap for a single row of 8 pixels.
# some unprintable ASCII chars
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 0x20 = space
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# !
00 00 00 00 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 00 08 08 00 00
# "
00 00 22 22 22 22 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 0x23 = '#'
00 00 00 00 12 12 12 7e 24 24 7e 48 48 48 00 00
# $
00 00 00 00 08 3e 49 48 38 0e 09 49 3e 08 00 00
# %
00 00 00 00 31 4a 4a 34 08 08 16 29 29 46 00 00
# &
00 00 00 00 1c 22 22 14 18 29 45 42 46 39 00 00
# '
00 00 08 08 08 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# (
00 00 00 04 08 08 10 10 10 10 10 10 08 08 04 00
# )
00 00 00 20 10 10 08 08 08 08 08 08 10 10 20 00
# *
00 00 00 00 00 00 08 49 2a 1c 2a 49 08 00 00 00
# +
00 00 00 00 00 00 08 08 08 7f 08 08 08 00 00 00
# ,
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 08 08 10
# -
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 00 00 00 00 00 00
# .
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 18 00 00
# /
00 00 00 00 02 02 04 08 08 10 10 20 40 40 00 00
# 0x30 = '0'
00 00 00 00 18 24 42 46 4a 52 62 42 24 18 00 00
# 1
00 00 00 00 08 18 28 08 08 08 08 08 08 3e 00 00
# 2
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 02 0c 10 20 40 40 7e 00 00
# 3
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 02 1c 02 02 42 42 3c 00 00
# 4
00 00 00 00 04 0c 14 24 44 44 7e 04 04 04 00 00
# 5
00 00 00 00 7e 40 40 40 7c 02 02 02 42 3c 00 00
# 6
00 00 00 00 1c 20 40 40 7c 42 42 42 42 3c 00 00
# 7
00 00 00 00 7e 02 02 04 04 04 08 08 08 08 00 00
# 8
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 42 3c 42 42 42 42 3c 00 00
# 9
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 42 3e 02 02 02 04 38 00 00
# :
00 00 00 00 00 00 18 18 00 00 00 18 18 00 00 00
# ;
00 00 00 00 00 00 18 18 00 00 00 18 08 08 10 00
# <
00 00 00 00 00 02 04 08 10 20 10 08 04 02 00 00
# =
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 7e 00 00 00 7e 00 00 00 00
# >
00 00 00 00 00 40 20 10 08 04 08 10 20 40 00 00
# ?
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 02 04 08 08 00 08 08 00 00
# 0x40 = @
00 00 00 00 1c 22 4a 56 52 52 52 4e 20 1e 00 00
# A
00 00 00 00 18 24 24 42 42 7e 42 42 42 42 00 00
# B
00 00 00 00 7c 42 42 42 7c 42 42 42 42 7c 00 00
# C
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 40 40 40 40 42 42 3c 00 00
# D
00 00 00 00 78 44 42 42 42 42 42 42 44 78 00 00
# E
00 00 00 00 7e 40 40 40 7c 40 40 40 40 7e 00 00
# F
00 00 00 00 7e 40 40 40 7c 40 40 40 40 40 00 00
# G
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 40 40 4e 42 42 46 3a 00 00
# H
00 00 00 00 42 42 42 42 7e 42 42 42 42 42 00 00
# I
00 00 00 00 3e 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 3e 00 00
# J
00 00 00 00 1f 04 04 04 04 04 04 44 44 38 00 00
# K
00 00 00 00 42 44 48 50 60 60 50 48 44 42 00 00
# L
00 00 00 00 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 7e 00 00
# M
00 00 00 00 42 42 66 66 5a 5a 42 42 42 42 00 00
# N
00 00 00 00 42 62 62 52 52 4a 4a 46 46 42 00 00
# O
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 3c 00 00
# 0x50 = P
00 00 00 00 7c 42 42 42 7c 40 40 40 40 40 00 00
# Q
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 42 42 42 42 5a 66 3c 03 00
# R
00 00 00 00 7c 42 42 42 7c 48 44 44 42 42 00 00
# S
00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 40 30 0c 02 42 42 3c 00 00
# T
00 00 00 00 7f 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 00 00
# U
00 00 00 00 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 3c 00 00
# V
00 00 00 00 41 41 41 22 22 22 14 14 08 08 00 00
# W
00 00 00 00 42 42 42 42 5a 5a 66 66 42 42 00 00
# X
00 00 00 00 42 42 24 24 18 18 24 24 42 42 00 00
# Y
00 00 00 00 41 41 22 22 14 08 08 08 08 08 00 00
# Z
00 00 00 00 7e 02 02 04 08 10 20 40 40 7e 00 00
# [
00 00 00 0e 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 0e 00
# \
00 00 00 00 40 40 20 10 10 08 08 04 02 02 00 00
# ]
00 00 00 70 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 70 00
# ^
00 00 18 24 42 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# _
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 7f 00
# 0x60 = backtick
00 20 10 08 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# a
00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 42 02 3e 42 42 46 3a 00 00
# b
00 00 00 40 40 40 5c 62 42 42 42 42 62 5c 00 00
# c
00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 42 40 40 40 40 42 3c 00 00
# d
00 00 00 02 02 02 3a 46 42 42 42 42 46 3a 00 00
# e
00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 7e 40 40 42 3c 00 00
# f
00 00 00 0c 10 10 10 7c 10 10 10 10 10 10 00 00
# g
00 00 00 00 00 02 3a 44 44 44 38 20 3c 42 42 3c
# h
00 00 00 40 40 40 5c 62 42 42 42 42 42 42 00 00
# i
00 00 00 08 08 00 18 08 08 08 08 08 08 3e 00 00
# j
00 00 00 04 04 00 0c 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 48 30
# k
00 00 00 40 40 40 44 48 50 60 50 48 44 42 00 00
# l
00 00 00 18 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 3e 00 00
# m
00 00 00 00 00 00 76 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 00 00
# n
00 00 00 00 00 00 5c 62 42 42 42 42 42 42 00 00
# o
00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 42 42 42 42 42 42 3c 00 00
# 0x70 = p
00 00 00 00 00 00 5c 62 42 42 42 42 62 5c 40 40
# q
00 00 00 00 00 00 3a 46 42 42 42 42 46 3a 02 02
# r
00 00 00 00 00 00 5c 62 42 40 40 40 40 40 00 00
# s
00 00 00 00 00 00 3c 42 40 30 0c 02 42 3c 00 00
# t
00 00 00 00 10 10 10 7c 10 10 10 10 10 0c 00 00
# u
00 00 00 00 00 00 42 42 42 42 42 42 46 3a 00 00
# v
00 00 00 00 00 00 42 42 42 24 24 24 18 18 00 00
# w
00 00 00 00 00 00 41 49 49 49 49 49 49 36 00 00
# x
00 00 00 00 00 00 42 42 24 18 18 24 42 42 00 00
# y
00 00 00 00 00 00 42 42 42 42 42 26 1a 02 02 3c
# z
00 00 00 00 00 00 7e 02 04 08 10 20 40 7e 00 00
# {
00 00 00 0c 10 10 08 08 10 20 10 08 08 10 10 0c
# |
00 00 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08
# }
00 00 00 30 08 08 10 10 08 04 08 10 10 08 08 30
# ~
00 00 00 31 49 46 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# 0x7f = del (unused)
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
# }}}
## Controlling IDE (ATA) hard disks
# Uses 28-bit PIO mode.
# Inspired by https://colorforth.github.io/ide.html
#
# Resources:
# https://wiki.osdev.org/ATA_PIO_Mode
# https://forum.osdev.org/viewtopic.php?f=1&p=167798
# read-sector, according to https://www.scs.stanford.edu/11wi-cs140/pintos/specs/ata-3-std.pdf
== data
# code disk
# All ports are 8-bit except data-port, which is 16-bit.
Primary-bus-primary-drive:
# command-port: int (write)
0x1f7/imm32
# status-port: int (read)
0x1f7/imm32
# alternative-status-port: int (read)
0x3f6/imm32
# error-port: int (read)
0x1f1/imm32
# drive-and-head-port: int
0x1f6/imm32
# sector-count-port: int
0x1f2/imm32
# lba-low-port: int
0x1f3/imm32
# lba-mid-port: int
0x1f4/imm32
# lba-high-port: int
0x1f5/imm32
# data-port: int
0x1f0/imm32
# drive-code: byte # only drive-specific field
0xe0/imm32 # LBA mode also enabled
# data disk
# All ports are 8-bit except data-port, which is 16-bit.
Primary-bus-secondary-drive:
# command-port: int (write)
0x1f7/imm32
# status-port: int (read)
0x1f7/imm32
# alternative-status-port: int (read)
0x3f6/imm32
# error-port: int (read)
0x1f1/imm32
# drive-and-head-port: int
0x1f6/imm32
# sector-count-port: int
0x1f2/imm32
# lba-low-port: int
0x1f3/imm32
# lba-mid-port: int
0x1f4/imm32
# lba-high-port: int
0x1f5/imm32
# data-port: int
0x1f0/imm32
# drive-code: byte # only drive-specific field
0xf0/imm32 # LBA mode also enabled
== code
load-sectors: # disk: (addr disk), lba: int, n: int, out: (addr stream byte)
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
51/push-ecx
52/push-edx
# check for drive
(drive-exists? *(ebp+8)) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/false
0f 84/jump-if-= $load-sectors:end/disp32
# kick off read
(ata-drive-select *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0xc))
(clear-ata-error *(ebp+8))
(ata-sector-count *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0x10))
(ata-lba *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0xc))
(ata-command *(ebp+8) 0x20) # read sectors with retries
# for each sector
{
# poll for results
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "waiting for sector.." 7 0)
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "." 7 0)
(while-ata-busy *(ebp+8))
(until-ata-data-available *(ebp+8))
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "reading\n" 7 0)
# var data-port/edx = disk->data-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0x24) 2/r32/edx
# emit results
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
b9/copy-to-ecx 0x200/imm32 # 512 bytes per sector
{
81 7/subop/compare %ecx 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
66 ed/read-port-dx-into-ax
# write 2 bytes to stream one at a time
(append-byte *(ebp+0x14) %eax)
49/decrement-ecx
c1/shift 5/subop/right-padding-zeroes %eax 8/imm8
(append-byte *(ebp+0x14) %eax)
49/decrement-ecx
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
# next sector
ff 1/subop/decrement *(ebp+0x10)
#? (draw-int32-decimal-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 *(ebp+0x10) 0xc 0)
81 7/subop/compare *(ebp+0x10) 0/imm32
7e/jump-if-<= break/disp8
(wait-400ns *(ebp+8))
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "next sector\n" 7 0)
e9/jump loop/disp32
}
$load-sectors:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
59/pop-to-ecx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
store-sectors: # disk: (addr disk), lba: int, n: int, in: (addr stream byte)
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
51/push-ecx
52/push-edx
53/push-ebx
# check for drive
(drive-exists? *(ebp+8)) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/false
0f 84/jump-if-= $store-sectors:end/disp32
# kick off write
(ata-drive-select *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0xc))
(clear-ata-error *(ebp+8))
(ata-sector-count *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0x10))
(ata-lba *(ebp+8) *(ebp+0xc))
(ata-command *(ebp+8) 0x30) # write sectors with retries
# for each sector
#? (set-cursor-position 0 0 0)
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "0" 7 0)
{
# wait
(while-ata-busy *(ebp+8))
(until-ata-ready-for-data *(ebp+8))
# var data-port/edx = disk->data-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0x24) 2/r32/edx
# send data
b9/copy-to-ecx 0x200/imm32 # 512 bytes per sector
# . var first-byte/ebx: byte
# . when it's more than 0xff, we're at an even-numbered byte
bb/copy-to-ebx 0xffff/imm32
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "D" 7 0)
$store-sectors:store-sector:
{
81 7/subop/compare %ecx 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
# this loop is slow, but the ATA spec also requires a small delay
(stream-empty? *(ebp+0x14)) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/false
75/jump-if-!= break/disp8
# read byte from stream
(read-byte *(ebp+0x14)) # => eax
# if we're at an odd-numbered byte, save it to first-byte
81 7/subop/compare %ebx 0xff/imm32
{
7e/jump-if-<= break/disp8
89/<- %ebx 0/r32/eax
eb/jump $store-sectors:store-sector/disp8
}
# otherwise OR it with first-byte and write it out
c1/shift 4/subop/left %eax 8/imm8
09/or %eax 3/r32/ebx
66 ef/write-ax-into-port-dx
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
# reset first-byte
bb/copy-to-ebx 0xffff/imm32
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
# write out final first-byte if necessary
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "I" 7 0)
81 7/subop/compare %ebx 0xff/imm32
{
7f/jump-if-> break/disp8
89/<- %eax 3/r32/ebx
66 ef/write-ax-into-port-dx
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
}
# pad zeroes
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "P" 7 0)
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
{
81 7/subop/compare %ecx 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
66 ef/write-ax-into-port-dx
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
# next sector
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "N" 7 0)
ff 1/subop/decrement *(ebp+0x10)
81 7/subop/compare *(ebp+0x10) 0/imm32
7e/jump-if-<= break/disp8
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "W" 7 0)
(wait-400ns *(ebp+8))
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "L" 7 0)
e9/jump loop/disp32
}
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "F" 7 0)
(flush-ata-cache *(ebp+8))
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "Y" 7 0)
$store-sectors:end:
# . restore registers
5b/pop-to-ebx
5a/pop-to-edx
59/pop-to-ecx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
# disk helpers {{{
drive-exists?: # disk: (addr disk) -> _/eax: boolean
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
52/push-edx
# check for floating bus
{
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
ba/copy-to-edx 0x1f7/imm32
ec/read-port-dx-into-al
3d/compare-eax-and 0xff/imm32
# if eax is 0xff, primary bus has no drives
b8/copy-to-eax 0/imm32/false
0f 84/jump-if-= $drive-exists?:end/disp32
}
# identify
(ata-drive-select *(ebp+8) 0)
(ata-sector-count *(ebp+8) 0)
(ata-lba *(ebp+8) 0)
(ata-command *(ebp+8) 0xec) # identify
# var status-port/edx = disk->status-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+4) 2/r32/edx # 4 = status-port offset
# read status port
# TODO: might need to spin here for 400ns: https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=ATA_PIO_Mode&oldid=25664#400ns_delays
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
ec/read-port-dx-into-al
# if eax is 0, drive does not exist
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32
{
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
b8/copy-to-eax 1/imm32/true
eb/jump $drive-exists?:complete-identify/disp8
}
# TODO: might need to perform remaining steps at https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=ATA_PIO_Mode&oldid=25664#IDENTIFY_command
b8/copy-to-eax 0/imm32/false
$drive-exists?:complete-identify:
50/push-eax
# var data-port/edx = disk->data-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0x24) 2/r32/edx # 0x24 = data-port offset
# clear FIFO from the drive
b9/copy-to-ecx 0x200/imm32
{
81 7/subop/compare %ecx 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
# read 4 bytes
ed/read-port-dx-into-eax
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
49/decrement-ecx
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
58/pop-to-eax
$drive-exists?:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
ata-drive-select: # disk: (addr disk), lba: int
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
56/push-esi
# esi = disk
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 6/r32/esi
# var drive-head/edx: byte = lba >> 24
8b/-> *(ebp+0xc) 2/r32/edx
c1/shift 5/subop/right-padding-zeroes %edx 0x18/imm8
# var drive-code/eax: byte = disk->drive-code | drive-head
8b/-> *(esi+0x28) 0/r32/eax # 0x28 = drive-code offset
09/or= %eax 2/r32/edx
# var drive-and-head-port/edx: int
8b/-> *(esi+0x10) 2/r32/edx # 0x10 = drive-and-head-port offset
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
$ata-drive-select:end:
# . restore registers
5e/pop-to-esi
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
clear-ata-error: # disk: (addr disk)
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var error-port/edx = disk->error-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0xc) 2/r32/edx # 0xc = error-port offset
#
b8/copy-to-eax 0/imm32
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
$ata-error:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
ata-sector-count: # disk: (addr disk), n: byte
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var sector-count-port/edx = disk->sector-count-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0x14) 2/r32/edx # 0x14 = sector-count-port offset
#
8b/-> *(ebp+0xc) 0/r32/eax
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
$ata-sector-count:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
ata-lba: # disk: (addr disk), lba: int
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var port/edx = disk->port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0x18) 2/r32/edx # 0x18 = lba-low-port offset
# eax = lba
8b/-> *(ebp+0xc) 0/r32/eax
# lo
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
# mid
42/increment-dx # lba-mid-port
c1/shift 5/subop/right-padding-zeroes %eax 8/imm8
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
# hi
42/increment-dx # lba-high-port
c1/shift 5/subop/right-padding-zeroes %eax 8/imm8
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
$ata-lba:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
ata-command: # disk: (addr disk), cmd: byte
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var command-port/edx = disk->command-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+0) 2/r32/edx # 0 = command-port offset
#
8b/-> *(ebp+0xc) 0/r32/eax
ee/write-al-into-port-dx
$ata-command:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
while-ata-busy: # disk: (addr disk)
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var status-port/edx = disk->status-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+4) 2/r32/edx # 4 = status-port offset
{
ec/read-port-dx-into-al
a8/test-bits-in-al 0x80/imm8/bsy # set zf if bit 7 (most significant) is not set
75/jump-if-zf-not-set-and-bit-7-set loop/disp8
}
$while-ata-busy:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
c3/return
until-ata-data-available: # disk: (addr disk)
# . save registers
50/push-eax
52/push-edx
# var status-port/edx = disk->status-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+4) 2/r32/edx # 4 = status-port offset
{
ec/read-port-dx-into-al
a8/test-bits-in-al 8/imm8/drq # set zf if bit 3 is not set
74/jump-if-zf-set-and-bit-3-not-set loop/disp8
}
$until-ata-data-available:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
c3/return
until-ata-ready-for-data:
(until-ata-data-available)
c3/return
# https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=ATA_PIO_Mode&oldid=25664#400ns_delays
wait-400ns: # disk: (addr disk)
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
51/push-ecx
52/push-edx
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "waiting 400ns\n" 7 0)
# var status-port/edx = disk->status-port
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
8b/-> *(eax+4) 2/r32/edx # 4 = status-port offset
#
b9/copy-to-ecx 0x10/imm32
{
81 7/subop/compare %ecx 0/imm32
74/jump-if-= break/disp8
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "." 7 0)
ec/read-port-dx-into-al
49/decrement-ecx
eb/jump loop/disp8
}
$wait-400ns:end:
# . restore registers
5a/pop-to-edx
59/pop-to-ecx
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
# Flush cache isn't in ATA 3, but it shows up by the ATA 5 spec:
# http://hddguru.com/download/documentation/ATA-ATAPI-standard-5/ATA-ATAPI-5.pdf
flush-ata-cache: # disk: (addr disk)
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
#
(ata-drive-select *(ebp+8) 0)
(ata-command *(ebp+8) 0xe7) # flush cache
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "W" 7 0)
(while-ata-busy *(ebp+8))
#? (draw-text-wrapping-right-then-down-from-cursor-over-full-screen 0 "X" 7 0)
# TODO: seems unneeded? works for a single sector but Qemu hangs with multiple
# sectors. Data is still written.
#? (until-ata-ready-for-data *(ebp+8))
$flush-ata-cache:end:
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
# }}}
## Controlling a PS/2 mouse
# Uses no IRQs, just polling.
# Thanks Dave Long: https://github.com/jtauber/cleese/blob/master/necco/kernel/bochs/py8042.py
#
# Resources:
# https://wiki.osdev.org/Mouse_Input
# results x/eax, y/ecx range from -256 to +255
# See https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=Mouse_Input&oldid=25663#Format_of_First_3_Packet_Bytes
read-mouse-event: # -> _/eax: int, _/ecx: int
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
52/push-edx
53/push-ebx
# if no event, return 0, 0
b8/copy-to-eax 0/imm32
b9/copy-to-ecx 0/imm32
(any-mouse-event?) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/false
74/jump-if-= $read-mouse-event:end/disp8
# var f1/edx: byte = inb(0x60)
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
89/<- %edx 0/r32/eax
(wait-for-mouse-event)
# var dx/ebx: byte = inb(0x60)
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
89/<- %ebx 0/r32/eax
(wait-for-mouse-event)
# var dy/ecx: byte = inb(0x60)
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
89/<- %ecx 0/r32/eax
# eax = dx
89/<- %eax 3/r32/ebx
# if (f1 & 0x10) dx = -dx
{
f6 0/subop/test-bits %dl 0x10/imm8
74/jump-if-zero break/disp8
0d/or-eax-with 0xffffff00/imm32
}
# if (f1 & 0x20) dy = -dy
{
f6 0/subop/test-bits %dl 0x20/imm8
74/jump-if-zero break/disp8
81 1/subop/or %ecx 0xffffff00/imm32
}
$read-mouse-event:end:
# . restore registers
5b/pop-to-ebx
5a/pop-to-edx
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
# mouse helpers {{{
wait-for-mouse-event:
# . save registers
50/push-eax
#
{
(any-mouse-event?) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-and 0/imm32/false
74/jump-if-= loop/disp8
}
$wait-for-mouse-event:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-to-eax
# .
c3/return
any-mouse-event?: # -> _/eax: boolean
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
# 0x1 bit: there's data from the keyboard controller
# 0x20 bit: it's data from the aux port (the mouse)
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
24/and-al-with 0x21/imm8
3c/compare-al-with 0x21/imm8
0f 94/set-byte-if-= %al
c3/return
initialize-mouse:
(enable-keyboard-controller-aux-device)
# tell mouse to use default settings
(send-mouse-command 0xf6)
# enable mouse
(send-mouse-command 0xf4)
c3/return
enable-keyboard-controller-aux-device:
(command-keyboard-controller 0xa8)
c3/return
send-mouse-command: # command: byte
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
#
(command-keyboard-controller 0xd4)
(send-keyboard-controller-data *(ebp+8))
(wait-for-ack-from-mouse)
$send-mouse-command:end:
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
wait-for-ack-from-mouse:
# . save registers
50/push-eax
{
(read-keyboard-controller-data) # => eax
3d/compare-eax-with 0xfa/imm32
75/jump-if-!= loop/disp8
}
$wait-for-ack-from-mouse:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-eax
c3/return
command-keyboard-controller: # command: byte
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
#
(poll-keyboard-controller-to-write)
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
e6/write-al-into-port 0x64/imm8
$command-keyboard-controller:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
send-keyboard-controller-data: # data: byte
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
#
(poll-keyboard-controller-to-write)
8b/-> *(ebp+8) 0/r32/eax
e6/write-al-into-port 0x60/imm8
$send-keyboard-controller-data:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
read-keyboard-controller-data: # -> _/eax: byte
(poll-keyboard-controller-to-read-data-port)
31/xor %eax 0/r32/eax
e4/read-port-into-al 0x60/imm8
c3/return
poll-keyboard-controller-to-write:
# . save registers
50/push-eax
# "All output to port 0x60 or 0x64 must be preceded by waiting for bit 1
# (value=2) of port 0x64 to become clear."
# https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=Mouse_Input&oldid=25663#Waiting_to_Send_Bytes_to_Port_0x60_and_0x64
{
e4/read-port-into-al 0x64/imm8
a8/test-bits-in-al 2/imm8 # set zf if bit 1 (second-least significant) is not set
75/jump-if-zf-not-set-and-bit-1-set loop/disp8
}
$poll-keyboard-controller-to-write:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
c3/return
poll-keyboard-controller-to-read-data-port:
# . prologue
55/push-ebp
89/<- %ebp 4/r32/esp
# . save registers
50/push-eax
# "Bytes cannot be read from port 0x60 until bit 0 (value=1) of port 0x64 is set."
# https://wiki.osdev.org/index.php?title=Mouse_Input&oldid=25663#Waiting_to_Send_Bytes_to_Port_0x60_and_0x64
{
e4/read-port-into-al 0x64/imm8
a8/test-bits-in-al 1/imm8 # set zf if bit 0 (least significant) is not set
74/jump-if-zf-set-and-bit-0-not-set loop/disp8
}
$poll-keyboard-controller-to-read-data-port:end:
# . restore registers
58/pop-to-eax
# . epilogue
89/<- %esp 5/r32/ebp
5d/pop-to-ebp
c3/return
# }}}
# vim:ft=subx